How to write Result and discussion in Research

How to write Result and discussion in Research

  1. Result: A scientific research has a beginning and an end; the results are simply the end of particular research & what found in the study
  • Presenting the results:

─Present the results of the study, in logical order; using tables, maps and graphs as necessary.

─Explain the results and show how they help to answer the research questions posed in the Introduction.

─Evidence does not explain itself; the results must be presented and then explained.

2. Discussion: Help to interpret and describe the significance of your findings and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem.

  • Summarize the results
  • Outline their interpretation in light of the known literature
  • Explain the importance of your results
  • Acknowledge the shortcomings of the study
  • Discuss any future directions
Data collections ,presentation and analysis in a Research (Tips)

Data collections ,presentation and analysis in a Research (Tips)

1.Data collections (generation)

While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind
two types of data viz., primary and secondary.
The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in
The secondary data, on the other hand, are those which have already been collected by someone else and which

have already been passed through the statistical process.
The researcher would have to decide which sort of data he would be using (thus collecting) for his study and
accordingly he will have to select one or the other method of data collection.

What is data collection?
The process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer the research problem.
In collecting the data, the researcher must decide:

  • Which data to collect
  • How to collect the data
  • Who will collect the data
  • When to collect the data

The selection of data collection method should be based on the following:
The identified hypothesis or research problem
The research design
The information gathered about the variables

2. Data presentation 

  • For quantitative: Tables are devices for presenting datasimply from masses of statistical data

─Charts and Diagrams

─Statistical Maps

─Statistical Averages

─Measures of Dispersion

  • For qualitative: Qualitative data conventionally are presented by using illustrative quotes.

─Quotes are “raw data” and should be compiled and analyzed, not just listed

─There should be an explanation of how the quotes were chosen and how they are labeled

data presentation in research
Data presentation in research

3. Research Data analysis

  • Quantitative Data
  • Cross-tabulation: Cross tabulation is a method to quantitatively analyze the relationship between multiple variables.
  • Trend analysis: Trend analysis is based on the idea that what has happened in the past gives the researcher an idea of what will happen in the future.
  • Research Data analysis by architect Kaleab M
    Research Data analysis by architect Kaleab M
      • Qualitative data: The most commonly used data analysis methods are:
    • ─ Content analysis: This is one of the most common methods to analyze qualitative data.
      • the study of documents & communication artifacts
      • includes texts of various formats, pictures, audio or video.

      ─ Narrative analysis: This method is used to analyze content from various sources, such as:

      • interviews of respondents,
      • observations from the field,
      • or surveys.
    • Qualitative Research Data Analysis by Kaleab
      Qualitative Research Data Analysis by Kaleab


research method and methodology by architect Kaleab M

How to write Research methods and methodologies

  • Different types of research approaches
  1. interpretive-historical
  2. qualitative & quantitative
  3. correlational
  4. experimental
  5. simulation and modeling
  6. logical argumentation
  7. and case study

1. Interpretive-historical Research

  • Historical research enables you to explore and explain the meanings, phases, and characteristics of a phenomenon or process at a particular point of time in the past

─Refers to research in the discipline of history.

─The aim is to identify appearances of your chosen phenomenon in a temporally defined situation and environment.

─It is also suitable in other disciplines as it enables you to focus on exploring the historical appearances of phenomena.

─Qualitative analysis is the norm, but quantitative analysis can also explain the past.

2. Qualitative & quantitative Research

  • Qualitative research:

─Involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences.

─It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.

  • Quantitative research:

─Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data.

─It can be used to:

  • find patterns and averages,
  • make predictions,
  • test causal relationships,
  • and generalize results to wider populations.

3. Correlational research

  • Correlational research is a type of non-experimental research method

─a researcher measures two variables

─understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them

─no influence from any extraneous variable

4. Experimental Research

  • There are two basic types of research design:

─True experiments


  • The purpose of both is to examine the cause of certain phenomena
  • All the important factors that might affect the phenomena of interest are completely controlled
  • It is not possible or practical to control all the key factors (quasi-experimental research is needed)
  • Similarities between true and quasi-experiments:

─Study participants are subjected to some type of treatment or condition

─Some outcome of interest is measured

─The researchers test whether differences in this outcome are related to the treatment

5. Modeling and simulation (M&S)

  • Is the use of models (e.g., physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process) as a basis for simulations to develop data utilized for technical or other decision making.
  • Modeling and simulation procedure
    Modeling and simulation procedure
    Model verification and validation architecture
    Model verification and validation architecture

    6. logical argumentation

  • logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation

    7. Case studies Research

    • A researchapproach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context.
    • It is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences.
    • Used mainly used qualitative data but sometimes collect quantitative data
    • According to Yin (2014), a case study research typically includes multiple data collection techniques and data are collected from multiple sources.
    • Data collection techniques include:


    ─observations (direct and participant),


    ─and relevant documents


How to Conduct & Write Literature Review (Step by Step)

Step 1. Choose a topic. After defining  your research question.

  • Literature review should be guided by a central research question.
  • It is not a collection of loosely related studies

─represents background and research developments related to a specific research question

─ should be interpreted and analyzed by you in a synthesized way


─Make sure your research question is not too broad or too narrow.

─Begin writing down terms that are related to your question.

─If you have the opportunity, discuss your topic with your professor.

Step 2. Decide on the scope of your review.

  • How many studies do you need to look at?
  • How comprehensive should it be?
  • How many years should it cover?
  • How many sources does the assignment require?
  • Step 3. elect the databases you will use to conduct your searches.
  • Make a list of the databases you will search.
  • Remember to include comprehensive databases for journals and books
  • Dissertations & Theses, if you need to.

Step 4. Conduct your searches and find the literature.

  • Review the abstracts of research studies carefully. This will save you time.
  • Write down the searches you conduct in each database
  • Use the bibliographies and references of research studies you find to locate others.
  • Ask your professor or a scholar in the field if you are missing any key works in the field.
  • Use software to keep track of your research citations.

Step 5. Review the literature.

  • Some questions to help you analyze the research:
  • What was the research question of the study you are reviewing?
  • What were the authors trying to discover?
  • What were the research methodologies?
  • What are the results, findings and the conclusions.
  • Does the research seem to be complete?
  • What further questions does it raise?
  • If there are conflicting studies, why do you think that is?

How to write Scope and limitation in Research

  • Delimitations aim to narrow the scope of a study.
  • For example, the scope may focus on:

─specific variables,

─specific participants,

─specific sites, or

─narrowed to one type of research design (e.g., ethnography or experimental research, case study).

  • Limitations aim to identify potential weaknesses of the study.
  • For example, a certain aspect of the research can have limitations

─statistical procedures

─number of cases

─research strategies,

─surveys or

─grounded theory studies

  • Spatial scope: Administrative level that the data set intends to cover.

─The spatial scope can be different from the actual geographical coverage,

─The spatial scope of the data set does not necessarily reflect the administrative level responsible for collecting and maintaining the data

  • Thematic scope: Means concerned with the subject or theme of something, or with themes and topics in general.

─Focused on topics or theories that you will discuss

  • Temporal scope: Defines group history and future

─the shared experience that the group has developed in the past

─and the expectation of future collaboration, respectively.