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How to write Research methods and methodologies

research method and methodology by architect Kaleab M
  • Different types of research approaches
  1. interpretive-historical
  2. qualitative & quantitative
  3. correlational
  4. experimental
  5. simulation and modeling
  6. logical argumentation
  7. and case study

1. Interpretive-historical Research

  • Historical research enables you to explore and explain the meanings, phases, and characteristics of a phenomenon or process at a particular point of time in the past

─Refers to research in the discipline of history.

─The aim is to identify appearances of your chosen phenomenon in a temporally defined situation and environment.

─It is also suitable in other disciplines as it enables you to focus on exploring the historical appearances of phenomena.

─Qualitative analysis is the norm, but quantitative analysis can also explain the past.

2. Qualitative & quantitative Research

  • Qualitative research:

─Involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences.

─It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.

  • Quantitative research:

─Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data.

─It can be used to:

  • find patterns and averages,
  • make predictions,
  • test causal relationships,
  • and generalize results to wider populations.

3. Correlational research

  • Correlational research is a type of non-experimental research method

─a researcher measures two variables

─understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them

─no influence from any extraneous variable

4. Experimental Research

  • There are two basic types of research design:

─True experiments


  • The purpose of both is to examine the cause of certain phenomena
  • All the important factors that might affect the phenomena of interest are completely controlled
  • It is not possible or practical to control all the key factors (quasi-experimental research is needed)
  • Similarities between true and quasi-experiments:

─Study participants are subjected to some type of treatment or condition

─Some outcome of interest is measured

─The researchers test whether differences in this outcome are related to the treatment

5. Modeling and simulation (M&S)

  • Is the use of models (e.g., physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process) as a basis for simulations to develop data utilized for technical or other decision making.
  • Modeling and simulation procedure
    Modeling and simulation procedure
    Model verification and validation architecture
    Model verification and validation architecture

    6. logical argumentation

  • logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation

    7. Case studies Research

    • A researchapproach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context.
    • It is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences.
    • Used mainly used qualitative data but sometimes collect quantitative data
    • According to Yin (2014), a case study research typically includes multiple data collection techniques and data are collected from multiple sources.
    • Data collection techniques include:


    ─observations (direct and participant),


    ─and relevant documents