Research Process

what is the difference between Research process & Design development process (in Architecture)

Research process

  • The research process contains the following main elements.
  1. Background Read more
  2. Problem statement, research questions & objectives Read more
  3. Scope and limitations Read More
  4. Reviewing literature Read More
  5. Research methodology Read More
  6. Data collections (generation) ,presentation and analysis Read More
  7. Result and discussions Read More
  8. Key findings & conclusions of the research Read More
research method and methodology by architect Kaleab M

How to write Research methods and methodologies

  • Different types of research approaches
  1. interpretive-historical
  2. qualitative & quantitative
  3. correlational
  4. experimental
  5. simulation and modeling
  6. logical argumentation
  7. and case study

1. Interpretive-historical Research

  • Historical research enables you to explore and explain the meanings, phases, and characteristics of a phenomenon or process at a particular point of time in the past

─Refers to research in the discipline of history.

─The aim is to identify appearances of your chosen phenomenon in a temporally defined situation and environment.

─It is also suitable in other disciplines as it enables you to focus on exploring the historical appearances of phenomena.

─Qualitative analysis is the norm, but quantitative analysis can also explain the past.

2. Qualitative & quantitative Research

  • Qualitative research:

─Involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences.

─It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.

  • Quantitative research:

─Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data.

─It can be used to:

  • find patterns and averages,
  • make predictions,
  • test causal relationships,
  • and generalize results to wider populations.

3. Correlational research

  • Correlational research is a type of non-experimental research method

─a researcher measures two variables

─understands and assesses the statistical relationship between them

─no influence from any extraneous variable

4. Experimental Research

  • There are two basic types of research design:

─True experiments


  • The purpose of both is to examine the cause of certain phenomena
  • All the important factors that might affect the phenomena of interest are completely controlled
  • It is not possible or practical to control all the key factors (quasi-experimental research is needed)
  • Similarities between true and quasi-experiments:

─Study participants are subjected to some type of treatment or condition

─Some outcome of interest is measured

─The researchers test whether differences in this outcome are related to the treatment

5. Modeling and simulation (M&S)

  • Is the use of models (e.g., physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process) as a basis for simulations to develop data utilized for technical or other decision making.
  • Modeling and simulation procedure
    Modeling and simulation procedure
    Model verification and validation architecture
    Model verification and validation architecture

    6. logical argumentation

  • logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation
    logical argumentation

    7. Case studies Research

    • A researchapproach that is used to generate an in-depth, multi-faceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context.
    • It is an established research design that is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences.
    • Used mainly used qualitative data but sometimes collect quantitative data
    • According to Yin (2014), a case study research typically includes multiple data collection techniques and data are collected from multiple sources.
    • Data collection techniques include:


    ─observations (direct and participant),


    ─and relevant documents